The world No. 1 covered the first set but lost the second in a thrilling tie-break before regaining her composure to win the deciding match.
Barty is the first Australian to win the title from the single since her idol Evonne Goolagong Cawley won it in 1980.
Pliskova, who was only making her second Grand Slam final, took too long to settle into the game and had to pay for her early form despite improving in the more competitive second and third sets.
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